The United Kingdom, the British Isles and England
The United Kingdom (or Great
Britain) is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two
large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousand small
islands. Their total area is over 244.000 square kilometres.
The United Kingdom is made up
of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland (on the island of Great Britain),
and Northern Ireland (on the island of Ireland). Their capitals are London,
Cardiff, Edinburgh, and Belfast respectively. The capital of the UK is London.
The British Isles are
separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel.
The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the
The surface of the British Isles
varies very much. The north of Scotland is mountainous and is called the
Highlands, while the south, which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called
the Lowlands. The north and west of England are mountainous, but all the rest
cast, centre, and south-east — is a vast plain. Mountains are not \ ei \ high.
Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1.343 m).
There are a lot of rivers in
Great Britain, hut they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river,
while the Thames is the deepest one.
The mountains, the Atlantic
Ocean, and the warm waters of Gulf Stream influence on the climate of the
British Isles. It is mild the whole year round.
The UK is one of the world's
smallest countries. Its population is over 57 million. About 80 % of the population
The UK is a highly developed
industrial country. It is known as one of the world's largest producers and
exporters of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft, and navigation
equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.
The UK is a constitutional
monarchy. In law, Head of the State is Queen. In practice, Queen reigns, but
does not rule. The country is ruled by the elected government with the Prime
Minister at the head. The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the
House of Lords and the House of Commons.
There are three main political
parties in Great Britain: the Labour, the Conservative, and the Liberal